Like social security, health insurance is subject to the national legislation of each individual country.
In the EU, the EEA, and Switzerland, the national health insurance systems of individual Member States are not harmonised, but merely coordinated. In some cases, coordination replaces the national rules that are disadvantageous for migrating citizens. The principles of posting of employees and self-employed persons who are EU citizens to another EU country are governed by Regulation (EC) No 883/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Under the coordination regulations, you are subject to the legislation of only one Member State. You have health coverage in that country and pay regular health insurance contributions to the country’s scheme, as well as social security contributions, even from income generated from activities you carry out in another Member State.
The right of EU citizens to use health care in other EU countries is also based on Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border health care, which supplements the EU’s coordination regulations.
In countries outside the EU, the EEA, and Switzerland, health insurance is regulated by international social security agreements, which have mostly the form of bilateral agreements between two countries and contain also provisions concerning health insurance of migrating persons and the scope of its coverage. A complete and updated list of the existing international agreements is available on the website of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.
As regards countries that have no social security agreements with the Czech Republic, it is important to inquire about the regulations of the particular country and follow them. Taking out a travel health medical policy is also very important.